0307 The Strings of the Universe by Brian R. Green (1)

2022-08-01 0 By

The four forces of nature and their related particles and their masses. 3. Matter is made up of atoms, which are made up of quarks and electrons.All of these particles are really a closed string vibrating.4. In string theory, the vibration of a string at the resonant frequency produces not music, but a particle whose mass and force are determined by the oscillating pattern of the string.Strings where electrons vibrate in one way, strings where upper quarks vibrate in another way, and so on.In string theory, the properties of particles are not a jumble of experimental results, but rather a concrete manifestation of the same physical property: the resonant patterns of basically closed strings — or the music of strings, so to speak.The same idea applies to the forces of nature.The particles of force are also associated with certain string vibration patterns, so that all things, all matter, and all forces are unified under the banner of microscopic string oscillations — the “music” that the strings play.Space, Time, and the Quantum Dilemma Space, Time, and the Viewer’s Eye 3 Curls and Ripples 1. The Earth moves in its orbit around the Sun because it has tumbled into a “valley” in curved space.More precisely, it takes the path of least resistance in the curved region around the sun.2. A black hole curls the fabric of spacetime around it so badly that nothing falling into its “event horizon” — the black circle in this image — can escape its gravitational grip.No one knows exactly what’s going on at the deepest point of a black hole.1. Quantum mechanics asserts that we cannot say that a particle has a certain energy at a certain time.In order to improve the accuracy of energy measurement, the measuring time must be increased.In principle, this means that particles can fluctuate wildly in energy over short enough time scales.Chapter 5: Longing for a new theory: General relativity and quantum mechanics