Research on whether megacities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen should strictly control their scale or continue to expand

2022-04-28 0 By

China’s urban development policy was to “strictly control the size of big cities and rationally develop medium and small cities”. At that time, China’s urban scale classification standard was as follows:”Megacities with urban non-agricultural populations of more than 1 million, big cities with urban non-agricultural populations of 500,000 to 1 million, medium cities with urban non-agricultural populations of 200,000 to 500,000, and small cities with urban non-agricultural populations of less than 200,000″.In other words, the cities with urban population over 500,000 were strictly controlled in China at that time, because the number of big cities in China was relatively small in the last century. In 1981, China had 46 big cities (cities with urban population over 500,000) and 18 megacities (cities with urban population over 1 million).But now China’s city scale continues to expand, urban population of more than 500,000 cities more and more.By 2022, China has more than 93 big cities (cities with an urban population of more than 1 million), 14 megacities (cities with an urban population of 5 million to 10 million), and 7 megacities (cities with an urban population of more than 10 million).Therefore, countries in 2014 are adjusted by the standard of city scale in China, establish the issued by the State Council notice on adjusting the standard of urban size, puts forward the concept of large cities, the city has a population of more than 10 million city identified as large cities, urban population 5 million, 10 million cities for megacities,Cities with an urban population of 1 million to 5 million are big cities, those with an urban population of 500,000 to 1 million are medium cities, and those with an urban population of less than 500,000 are small cities.It shows that the policy of “strictly controlling the size of big cities” did not work, but there are more and more big cities.So should China’s megacities and megacities be strictly controlled, or should they continue to expand?First, should China’s megacities and megacities be strictly controlled or continue to expand?At present, there are 7 mega cities in China, namely Shanghai, Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Chengdu, Chongqing and Tianjin.There are 14 mega cities, which are Wuhan, Dongguan, Nanjing, Xi ‘an, Hangzhou, Shenyang, Zhengzhou, Qingdao, Harbin, Kunming, Foshan, Jinan, Changsha, Dalian and so on.Should China’s megacities and mega-cities be strictly controlled, or should they continue to expand?China’s megacities and megacities can be further expanded.Such as the north connect into large cities in China such as YuJin population agglomeration degree than the United States in New York, Tokyo, Japan, Mexico, London, Paris, France, Mexico City, Cairo, Egypt, Indonesia Jakarta foreign large city is not enough, so there is great potential for development, the direction that continue to let it go.The question is, is the status quo of these foreign megacities a reasonable target for development?Cairo accounts for more than half of Egypt’s GDP, which is far from enough.How big can a city get relatively good economic benefits, environmental benefits and social benefits?Seems to be a question that the world has not worked out.Perhaps it is because the background and influencing factors of different cities in different countries are too complicated.Taking Beijing, the capital of China, as an example, this paper discusses whether a reasonable industrial policy for megacities (population over 10 million) can solve the problem of their continued expansion.Beijing now has about 40 to 50 million permanent residents and floating population.There are 6.57 million motor vehicles, and more than 2 million permanent residents have participated in the lottery waiting to buy cars.Even with the restrictions in place, the average speed is about 25 km per hour (15 km per hour for bicycles), the average subway car is 10 people per square metre during rush hour, and the average bus is similar.Therefore, it is necessary to study the effect of industrial policy on urban scale.China’s megacities and megacities can no longer be sprawling.He Fanghong, the town planner, advocates that the expansion of megacities should be stopped or at least slowed down greatly. Why does the town planner, who used to support the liberalization of the development scale of big cities, now support the control of the size of megacities and megacities?There are two reasons: first, China’s adherence to the red line of 1.8 billion mu of cultivated land has been imminent, China’s urban development can no longer encroach on the precious cultivated land resources around the city.Second, according to the data of the seventh national census, many cities in China are losing population. That is to say, in the future, China’s cities will no longer be disorderly and sprawling. Urban renewal and tapping potential will be the key direction of cities in the future.This idea actually, countries have been implemented, is compiled by the national spatial planning of each medium cities, have defined the three line (red line of permanent basic farmland, ecological protection, town development boundary), once defined implementation of town development boundaries, again want to sprawl city has been impossible.However, the demarcation of urban development boundary also leaves some space for urban expansion, which is not to say that there is no space at all.We use guidance and regulation here because strict control was introduced in the era of administrative orders in the planned economy, and it is appropriate to use guidance and regulation in the market economy, so that the goal of strict control can be better achieved.How to guide adjustment?Or how strictly?There is still no good way.Is it feasible to make an issue of industrial policy, industrial layout and industrial transfer?Take Beijing as an example. During the 10 years from the fifth national census in 2000 to the sixth national census in 2010, the permanent population of Beijing increased by 6 million, averaging 600,000 per year.According to the seventh national census in 2020, the permanent population of Beijing was 2,1,893,095, an increase of 2,280,727, or 11.6%, compared with 1,9612,368 in the sixth national census in 2010, with an average annual increase of 1.1%.You don’t see the effectiveness of strict controls.In 1987, the number of migrants in Beijing was more than 800,000. In 2014, it increased tenfold to 8.3 million, and this is only the number of migrants who have lived in Beijing for more than half a year.In 2020, the migrant population in Beijing accounted for 35 percent of the total population, reaching 7.662,600.In 1987, Beijing’s labor department drew up a list of industries that banned foreign workers from entering dozens of industries, including serving as waiters in foreign-star hotels.Now almost all of Beijing’s hotel staff are migrants.At that time the enterprise recruited every foreign worker to want to classics labor department approval, call otherwise private recruit disorderly hire.In 1983, food and clothing were basically met in rural areas throughout the country, and after the quotas were extended to households, surplus rural labor appeared. The social environment became relaxed, and farmers were free to leave their villages and work in cities.At that time, the industrial development level was low, the economic aggregate was small, and the export channel was narrow. In 1987, the total number of farmers working in cities was 15 million, and in 2014, it was 250 million.In 1982, the total population of Beijing was 9.23 million. In the sixth census of 2010, the permanent population of Beijing was 19.612 million. By the end of 2014, the permanent population of Beijing was 21.516 million.There are more non-Beijing residents than Beijing residents in the urban area of Beijing.In the absence of a workable policy of adjustment, this trend will continue, with the result that the number of non-Beijing residents in urban Beijing will increasingly outnumber the number of Beijing residents (indigenous people).There may be a problem with the relationship between the new immigrants (domestic immigrants) and the aborigines. In fact, the aborigines in Beijing are already very resentful.From the perspective of the indigenous people, the new immigration forces are increasingly squeezing the survival and living space of the indigenous people, and the urban population density is getting higher and higher.At the same time, of course, the migrant population has made great contributions to Beijing’s development.Ii. What enlightenment can Hong Kong provide for the development of megacities and mega-cities on the Mainland?Hong Kong is a megalopolis in China, because the central urban area of Hong Kong has a population of less than 10 million, which is far from the scale of a megalopolis.All is not well in Hong Kong, but its development and management have accumulated some policy lessons for mainland megacities and megalopolises.The first is the service concept.As a small example, the first page of the Hong Kong Statistical Yearbook, which is very large and already rich in data indicators, clearly states that the yearbook is the data commonly used by the public. If the public needs data not included in the yearbook, they can contact the Census and Statistics Department. Then it gives you various methods to contact, including telephone number, email address, etc.(2) To learn from Hong Kong’s experience in management of large cities, including industrial management, over the past 40 years of reform and opening-up, the zipper problem in roads has not been solved, resulting in road congestion, waste of funds, materials turned into garbage and other consequences.Up to now, many positions of various pipelines buried under urban roads are not clear (many cities have not conducted a solid census of urban underground pipe network), and no one is responsible for data loss.We are a country with a planned economy for a long time. If the power supply, water supply, sewage, natural gas, heating and other industries that need underground pipelines in every major city cannot cooperate, there will be no innovation.More than 100 years ago, the mature experience of burying all the lines in one pipe in the world’s major cities was only heard.(3) Learn from Hong Kong’s Industrial development and Construction experience in Big Cities Hong Kong metro is the only profitable enterprise in the world. Although ticket prices are higher, only one third of its profits come from passenger transportation and two thirds from shops and properties.Every station of MTR is a comprehensive mall, which brings too much convenience to people.Hong Kong’s experience in the construction and operation of subway industry is still lacking in the management of mainland cities.Hong Kong Metro Co., LTD., Beijing Infrastructure Investment Corporation and Beijing Capital Group Co., Ltd. jointly formed Beijing-Hong Kong Metro Co., Ltd. to operate Beijing Metro Line 4 and Line 14, but failed to give full play to the experience of MTR in coordinating subway construction and operation with station design and commercial property development.(4) Hong Kong urban administrators who work in urban management institutions in the mainland are mainly talents who have relevant work experience but are not in their current posts, especially those in the public service industry.Vice mayor, deputy director general and office in mainland China.Hong Kong is a special economic zone and a megalopolis in China.Hong Kong has already issued a series of policies to attract professionals from the mainland, and the mainland can also introduce policies to hire management talents from Hong Kong’s big cities. It is a good way to seek for management and industrial development experience of super-large cities together.To sum up, we believe that the first important factor in determining the size of a city is industrial policy.Under the condition of planned economy, the government can strictly control the scale of cities by administrative order, including population scale, industrial scale and spatial scale.Below market economy condition, should adjust actively with economic means.GDP and tax growth rate can only be the result of actively adjusting industrial policy, but should not be the premise of a city’s industrial policy.