A 20-square-meter island nation that dug up bird droppings to become rich and free will now be impoverished

2022-04-28 0 By

There is such an island country in the Pacific Ocean, it is recognized as the smallest country in the world, but the residents of the island are relying on the island thick up to 10 meters of bird droppings, to achieve overnight wealth, buy sports cars, buy planes, repair high-end hotels have not satisfied them.But now the island is falling into poverty.There is even a risk of being sunk in recent years.This island is Nauru. What has happened to it?And where to go from here?Located in the heart of the Pacific Ocean 60 kilometers south of the equator, Nauru is a coral reef island with just 21 square kilometers and a population of just tens of thousands.This was an isolated island, because of its unique geographical location as migratory birds stop in the process of land, because in every year a large number of birds stay, accumulate over a long period under here and save the guano deposits of up to 10 meters, so thick guano not only focus on several points on the island, but to cover the area more than 70% of the island,This was the capital that Nauru would later become rich with, but no one knew at the beginning that it was a valuable resource.With the advent of the Age of Great Navigation, more and more people began to set sail in the hope of finding new lands and getting rich overnight.A group of British explorers discovered the island in 1798, when its inhabitants were still living a primitive life of gathering and hunting.Because of the island’s small size and low population, and because it was covered in a thick layer of bird droppings, the Unprofitable British left quickly, as if they feared that they would smell of accumulated bird droppings if they moved too slowly.Nearly a century after the Departure of British explorers, German explorers landed on nauru in 1888 and made it a German colony.Although the Germans did not leave in a hurry like the British before them, they felt that the island was of little practical value. Although they occupied it as a colony, they did not care much about its management, leaving the islanders to develop freely.This continued until a geologist landed on the island, where he was doing geological surveys and discovered that phosphate was basically what the island was made of.On the island of nauru is there are so many phosphate, fully benefit from the guano years of accumulation, phosphate is produced after fermentation, this is a kind of human use for a lot of minerals, phosphorus can be extracted as a food additive, added trace elements for the human body, and can be used as high quality fertilizer increase crop yields.Suddenly found that such a huge wealth, immediately became the colonists had neglected island in the eyes of “fat”, after the first world war, nauru was occupied by the British, and preempted by Japan during world war ii, after world war ii and controlled by Australia, different occupiers are doing the same thing, is the large-scale mining of phosphate on the island, valuable resources to produce a large amount of wealth,It all went to the colonists.It was not until 1968, when Nauru became independent, that this resource mountain really brought wealth to nauru. Through the sale of phosphate, the country became rich overnight, and its per capita income quickly rose to the top of the world, once much higher than that of Saudi Arabia.After getting rich by digging up bird droppings, nauru, like a nouveau riche, began to spend lavishly, building three TV towers, building a large number of international hotels, building an airport and buying five airplanes on the 20-square-meter island.All of a sudden, the Nauru government not only built a large number of high-end facilities, but also covered all the expenses for the life, old age, illness and death of all its citizens. For example, local residents can enjoy the welfare of free education, medical treatment and housing, and the government also bears the expenses for studying abroad.At Nauru House, a financial centre set up by the Nauru government in Melbourne, Australia, every household has a sports car. Some people wonder, what is the use of a sports car in such a big place?But when they get rich, all they think about is how to spend their money to make themselves happy, and the space is small, so I’ll drive two more laps.I can’t afford to eat anything before, but now I eat everything. I buy all the top Australian wagyu beef and the most expensive Lafite. I also drink a lot of soda every day.As a result, 80 percent of Nauru’s residents are diabetic and obese.But guano is a resource that is not renewable in the short term. Because nauru mines so much of it out of order, the excrement (phosphate) can no longer be produced as fast as it can be mined.The whole country has become rich overnight from bird droppings, and now it’s poverty stricken. After more than a hundred years of exploitation, the phosphate on Nauru is running out, and it will take a long time to build up again, but nauruans can’t wait that long.In addition to the immediate crisis of poverty, Nauruans face an even bigger one: the risk of their land being submerged by rising sea levels.Since the human into industrial age, a large amount of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere, this leads to global warming, it followed the arctic and Antarctic sea ice to melt, causing a global sea level rise, and nauru island as an elevation is not high, will be the first to be submerged below sea level, although in the short term is not “nauru sink” scenario, but scientists point out,If humanity does not change its current behavior, nauru will sink only a matter of time.But fortunately, nauru small national land less, even if the islands submerged and tens of thousands of residents can also to Australia close to life, and nauru’s government has built a building in Australia, is not suitable for survival to nauru island, will move into the building of the whole nation and country, from the island into a floor shelter in other countries continue to survive.In nauru from overnight to face a crisis of the whole process we can discover, rich resources and beautiful environment, is the gift of nature to human, we should always have a Thanksgiving heart, pay attention to protect them, rather than solutions, in the process of development to realize the harmonious coexistence of human and nature as far as possible, after all, hills and green also is jinshan yinshan,Sustainable development is the ultimate way out for mankind.Zhang Dongliang, Nauru — “Paradise Island” in the Depths of the Ocean, 2015, The Rise and Fall of The Island Nation Of Nauru, the Rise and Fall of the Beautiful Resource Nation of the Pacific, 2021, The Professional edition of The Journal of The World